Creating a Glossary

During the Crossing the Line project we sometimes encountered difficulties with the use of words. In the use of certain words, that are key in the conversations within and about the project, the signification can be different in the three languages. We therefore decided to create a glossary, to avoid confusion between the partners.

The purpose of this glossary is to allow a simple interchange of terms between the three languages used in the project. (Swedish, French and English) In practice, however, language is much more slippery, but we believe this glossary could be useful to others.

So here are a list of terms we found ourselves using, and trying to get to grips with. We have deliberately left in moments of confusion, unclarity and questioning, because you cannot gloss the glossary. Terms should not be taken for granted and are embedded within the cultural systems and structures to which they belong. Part of working together successfully means these need time to be explored and misunderstandings should be expected.

English Francais Svenska Definition
Academic Universitaire Akademisk 1, Relating to education and scholarship. 2, A teacher or scholar in a university.
Actor Acteur / actrice Skådespelare A person who portrays a character in a performance.
Advocacy Promouvoir Befrämja, befrämjande Speaking on behalf of…
Aesthetic Esthétiques Estetik A set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement.
Affirmative model Modèle social Bejakande/bekräftande (modell) This takes a non-tragic view of disability and impairment, and rejects the assumption that disability is necessarily negative. Instead, those with an affirmative orientation view disability as difference that can be celebrated and can enrich life. (The French and Swedish translations of this are not terms that are widely used.)
Artist Artiste Konstnär, artist A person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. This can also be an actor. At Mind the Gap the word artist is often used about the performers, whereas at Moomsteatern the word actor is used.
Artistically-led Pour qui l’artistique est la priorité Konstnärligt ledd Placing art above all else. Also above such things as therapy, advocacy or politics.
Assistant director Assistant / assistante à la mise en scène Regiassistent An assistant director is there to assist the director in delivering his or her creative vision. This could entail pre-rehearsal research on the context of the play, the playwright or a certain concept that the director wants to explore. It could involve aiding script editing and development, sourcing experts within certain fields to come into the rehearsal room to provide talks to the actors, reading in for actors who aren’t present, organising rehearsal calls, running parallel rehearsals or leading games or warm-ups. 
Artists’ coach Répétiteur / répétiteuse Skådespelarcoach A function at Moomsteatern which main task is to support the actors in focusing on their job, by for example helping them separating private life from work and preparing for rehearsals or performances.
Audiences Spectateurs / publics Publik The assembled spectators or listeners at a public event.
Audience Development Développement des publics Publikutveckling Activity which is undertaken specifically to meet the needs of existing and potential audiences and to help arts and cultural organisations to develop on-going relationships with audiences.
Co-creation Co-création Samproduktion The collaborative process of making art with others.
Collaboration Collaboration Samarbete Working with someone to produce something.
Comedian Comique (Komisk) Skådespelare / Komiker A person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh. Not to be confused with the French word comédian, which means actor.
Compagnie de l’Oiseau-Mouche Compagnie de l’Oiseau-Mouche Compagnie de l’Oiseau-Mouche Compagnie de l’Oiseau-Mouche is a permanent professional theatrical troupe made up of 23 actors, all of them individuals with a learning disability. Unequalled and unusual, the project remains unique in France. Each creation is the result of an artistic encounter between an invited artist and the actors he or she chooses to involve in this collaborative adventure.
Company Compagnie Teater An organization formed by people who make theatre.
Conservatory Conservatoire Konservatorium A college for the study of classical music or other arts, often associated with both vocation and elite.
Contained Contained (Contenu) Contained (Begränsad / Innehöll) A performance piece from Mind The Gap: nine interwoven stories about family and friendships, love and loss, the everyday and the extraordinary.
Creative Europe Europe Créative Kreativa Europa The European Union’s financial support programme for the creative, cultural and audiovisual sectors in Europe.
Crossing The Line Crossing The Line Crossing The Line Crossing The Line is a project of the co-operative partnership of 3 European theatre companies: all leaders in the field of working with learning disabled artists. The partners are Moomsteatern in Malmö, Sweden; Compagnie de L’Oiseau Mouche in Roubaix, France and Mind The Gap in Bradford, UK.
Director Metteur / metteuse en scène Regissör Person who has responsibility for the overall practical and creative interpretation of a performance.
Disability Handicap Funktionsnedsättning / Funktionsvariation 1, A physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities. 2, A disadvantage or handicap.
Disability culture Il n’y a pas de traduction en français Det finns ingen svensk översättning på ordet med dess egentliga innebörd Disability culture is a concept developed in the late 1980s to capture differences in lifestyle that are caused or promoted by disability. It is a complex blending of art, performance, expression, and community. There is no literal equivalent in Sweden, where the word handikappteater is sometimes used for theatre with disabled performers.
Dramaturg conseiller dramaturgique Dramaturg Literally means theatre worker; can also mean a person who brings knowledge and expertise to a theatre making process. This could be around the text, the performance, the choice of material or the wider context. Not to be confused with the French word “dramaturge” which means playwright.
A Dreamplay Le Songe Ett Drömspel Moomsteatern’s adaptation of August Strindberg’s A Dream Play creates a fantastic surreal universe where the daughter of the god Indra descends to Earth to live a human life.
Educational Enseignement Pedagogisk (Utbildande) Relating to the provision of education.
Employment Emploi Anställning The state of having paid work. (When Moomsteatern talk about their actors as employed they are referring to a full-time permanent employment, using the Swedish model of collective agreements.)
Ensemble Troupe Ensemble A group of musicians, actors, or dancers who perform together.
European Européen / européenne Europeisk Relating to, or coming from, Europe.
Festivals Festivals Festivaler An organized series of concerts, plays, or films, typically one held annually in the same place. (Theatre festivals are more common in UK and France, than they are in Sweden.)
Funders Financeurs Bidragsgivare / Anslagsgivare A person or organization that provides money for a particular purpose.
Funding Financements Finansiering The act of providing financial resources, usually in the form of money, or other values such as effort or time, to finance a need, programme, and project, usually by an organisation.
Stage manager Régisseur de scène Inspicient A person who provide practical and organizational support to the director, actors, designers, stage crew and technicians throughout the production process.
Intellectual Disabilities Handicap mental Intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar A disability characterized by limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills.
Learning Disability En situation de handicap mental (a person in a situation of disability) Med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning / funktionsvariation (with a learning disability) A learning disability is a neurological disorder. In simple terms, a learning disability results from a difference in the way a person’s brain is “wired.”
Marketing Communication Marknadsföring The action or business of promoting and selling products or services. (In French marketing is only used in commercial business and can’t be used to describe the promotion of activities at a theatre, they therefore use the word communication instead.)
Medical model Modèle medical “Sjukdomsmodell” Det finns inget svenskt ord för detta, men kan ändå kännas igen från diskussioner om “handikappanpassning”.) The medical model of disability views disability as a ‘problem’ that belongs to the disabled individual. It is not seen as an issue to concern anyone other than the individual affected. For example, if a wheelchair using performer is unable to get into a building because of some steps, the medical model would suggest that this is because of the wheelchair, rather than the steps. (The French and Swedish translations of this are not terms that are widely used.)
Mind The Gap Mind The Gap Mind The Gap Mind the Gap is England’s largest learning disability theatre company that creates work for UK and international audiences. Their vision is to work in an arts sector where there is equal opportunity for performers with learning disabilities: a world where performers are trained, respected and employed equally, and feature every day on our stages and screens.
Moomsteatern Moomsteatern Moomsteatern Moomsteatern is a professional theatre company based on actors with learning disabilities, on stage often integrated with non-disabled actors. The theatre was established in 1987 with the expressed goal to work with artistic objectives, banning all therapeutic and social aims. The sole aim of Moomsteatern is always to produce performing arts of high artistic quality.
Narrative Narration Berättelse / skildring / narrativ 1, A spoken or written account of connected events; a story. 2, The narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. 3, The practice or art of telling stories. 4, A representation of a particular situation or process in such a way as to reflect or conform to an overarching set of aims or values.
Network Réseau Nätverk A group or system of interconnected people or things.
Neurodiversity Neurodiversité Neurologisk mångfald Neurodiversity is the idea that neurological differences like autism and ADHD are the result of normal, natural variation in the human genome. (The term is not widely used in Sweden.)
Outreach Rayonnement Uppsökande An activity of providing services to any populations who might not otherwise have access to those services. A key component of outreach is that the groups providing it are not stationary, but mobile.
Operating grant Subvention de fonctionnement Verksamhetsbidrag A grant made to further the general purpose or work of an organization, rather than for a specific purpose or project.
Partnership Partenariat Partnerskap An umbrella term, encompassing a wide range of collaborations at national, regional and local level.
Performance Représentation Föreställning The act of presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment.
Performer Comédiens / comediennes ou performer Skådespelare Some use the term interchangeably with “actor”. Others differentiate between an actor playing a fictional character and a performer presenting themselves onstage.
Playwright Dramaturge Manus The creator of the play text.
Pourvu qu’on ait l’ivresse (Provided one has drunkenness) Pourvu qu’on ait l’ivresse Pourvu qu’on ait l’ivresse (Förutsatt att vi har berusning) “Pourvu qu’on ait l’ivresse” starts from a desire to form an open narrative, a promise where excess, monstrosity, beauty, the sublime and fear coexist. A space where performative presences play across nuances of registers, from minor to major, devouring themselves and re-generating through images. It is a performance created by Compagnie de l’Oiseau-Mouche.
Producer Producteur Producent Person responsible for the managerial and financial aspects of the making of a film or broadcast or for staging a play.
Production Production Produktion The staging or making of a play.
Professional Professionnel Professionell Engaged in a specified activity as one’s main paid occupation rather than as an amateur.
Project Projet Projekt An individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim.
Rehearsal Répétitions Repetition A practice or trial performance of a play or other work for later public performance.
Research Recherche Forskning The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Residency Résidence (Konstnärliga) Residens Artists and other creative professionals can stay and work elsewhere temporarily by participating in residency opportunities. These offer conditions that are conducive to creativity and provide their guests with context, such as working facilities, connections, audience.
Restaurant Restaurant Restaurang A place where people pay to sit and eat meals that are cooked and served on the premises.
Theatre technician Régisseurs Scentekniker A theatrical technician, (variably known as a tech, techie, technician, theatre tech or theatre technician) is a person who operates technical equipment and systems in the performing arts and entertainment industry.
Scripting Adaptation Bearbetning av manus The process of creating a script, when it differs from the playwright’s craft. For example when a group of actors or performers work together, perhaps with a director to generate a text in workshop.
Social Model Modèle social Social (samhälls-) modell This model draws on the idea that it is society that disables people, through designing everything to meet the needs of the majority of people who are not disabled. There is a recognition within the social model that there is a great deal that society can do to reduce, and ultimately remove, some of these disabling barriers, and that this task is the responsibility of society, rather than the disabled person. (The French and Swedish translations of this are not terms that are widely used.)
Theatre Théâtre Teater 1, A building or outdoor area in which plays and other dramatic performances are given. 2, The processes by which those performances get made.
“Theatres of Learning Disability” “Théâtre inclusif” “Teatrar baserade på artister med funktionsnedsättning” This is the title of a book, by Matt Hargrave, which investigates some of the different ways in which (artistically-led) theatre made by and with learning disabled artists, is created.
Therapeutic Thérapeutique Terapeutiska Relating to the healing of disease, and the promotion of wellbeing.
Touring Tournée Turnerande Theatre that travels, regionally, nationally or internationally, being presented at a different location in each village, town or city.
Transnational International / transnational Transnationell Extending or operating across national boundaries.
Translation Traduction Översättning The process of translating words or text from one language into another. With a performance text this is likely to be a dramaturgical process as well as a linguistic one.
Upstream / Downstream En amont / En aval Förarbete / Uppföljning To work with the audience BEFORE the performance (upstream) and AFTER the performance (downstream). For example to prepare the audience to what they are going to see and then help them express an opinion about what they saw.
Workshop Stage artistique / workshop Workshop 1, Present a performance (of a dramatic work), using intensive group discussion and improvisation in order to explore aspects of the production prior to formal staging. 2, Develop ideas, themes, possibilities for theatrical creation in an experimental or laboratory environment.